On this day, March 25, 1821, a minor rebellion in Greece commenced what came to be known as the Greek War of Independence. The war that lengthened for 11 years someday concluded at the end of Ottoman rule. The Greek rebellion materialized in Philikí Etaireía, a secret society founded in Odessa in 1814 when the sense of Hellenism or Greek nationality was already familiar. Their economic advancement and the effect of Western revolutionary ideas further heightened their Hellenism, emerging in a united rebellion against the four century-long rule.
The revolt began in February 1821 when Alexander Ypsilantis crossed the Prut River into Turkish-held Moldavia with a small force of troops. The Turks soon defeated Ypsilantis, but, in the meantime, on March 25, 1821, sporadic revolts against Ottoman rule had broken out in the Peloponnese, in Greece north of the Gulf of Corinth, and on several islands. Within a year, the rebels had gained control of the Peloponnese, and in January 1822, they declared the Independence of Greece.
Nevertheless, the Greeks underwent a setback when the Ottoman Turks, in 1826, recaptured Peloponnese with Egyptian sea power. Besides, they also captured Missolonghi, Athens, and Athenian in successive years. However, the Greek cause was recouped by the European powers’ intervention, including Great Britain, France, and Russia. After the downfall of the Egyptian fleet and several European mediated treaties, the Turkish Sultan ultimately recognized the Greek Independence in 1832 with the Treaty of Constantinople in 1832.
Greece officially commemorates its Independence on March 25, and today it is celebrating 200 years of it. Amidst COVID-19 and a worsening economy, the Greeks marked the bicentenary with a military parade and aeroplane flyby in Athens. On the same occasion, various world leaders, including Indian External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar, US President Joe Biden, have taken the opportunity to congratulate the European country.