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These all have come under chapter xvii of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, they are the offences that are related to property. They all the kind of aggravated form of the each other and always done against the property for some monetary benefit or the possession of the property by some other with the criminal force or assault with the mala fide intention. All these offences are penal offences under IPC and have some punishment for doing it.


It comes under section 378.

Anyone with intentionally, by dishonestly takes away or remove any movable property from its place or takes away it, without the consent, who has its possession on it, it said to be committed theft.

Anything which has been attached to the earth but the intention behind making it is of the movable, if someone moves it or dismantle it and then takes it away then it considers as theft.

The word “consent” has been mentioned above, that consent can be expressed or implied by the person who has its possession or by any duly authorized agent.


It falls under section 379.

Whoever commits this, shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three years or with fine or both.


It comes under section 383.

Whoever with the intention of putting any person in a fear of injury or any other person which is related to him and with that fear he induces or pressurizes him to deliver him valuable property or anything which is sealed or signed which can be considered as valuable property shall commit “extortion”.

“It is an aggravated form of theft because when someone uses the fear of injury with the help of any weapon and that person gave you property by himself but under the inducement of fear, then it concerted into extortion from theft”. 

This section always read with the section 385 and 387 because they talk about the meaning of “putting any person in fear of injury or grievous hurt or death”, which means putting some other person in complete fear of injury or grievous hurt or death by this that person can do anything for you under the inducement of that fear.


It falls under section 384.

Whoever commits this offence shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three years or fine or both.


It comes under section 390.

“The robbery is also the aggravated form of both theft and extortion, both of them can be converted into the robbery”.

  1. when theft is converted into robbery.

In order to commit theft, when the offender while committing it carrying away or attempting to carry away the property in that scenario, he, voluntarily causes or attempts to cause death or hurt or wrongful restraint or put any person in instant hurt, wrongful restraint or death.


  1. when extortion is converted into robbery.

When the offender at the time of committing extortion, in the presence of the person put him in instant fear or hurt or instant wrongful restraint or to any other and by that inducement he delivers the property instantly to him.


It falls under section 392.

When anyone commits it, shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to ten years or fine or both, or

When it commits at the time of sunset or sunrise on the highway then it may extend to fourteen years.


It comes under section 391.

When five or more people conjointly commit or attempt to commit robbery and any person with them at the time of committing aiding or present at that time, all of them are commits the offense of “dacoity”.

“It is the aggravated form of robbery whenever five or more than five person commits robbery or attempts immediately it converted into dacoity”.


It falls under section 395.

Whoever commits this offence shall be liable for the imprisonment of rigorous ten years or life imprisonment also be liable for the fine.



 Theft  Extortion  Robbery  Dacoity
With intention of dishonestly takes away property without the owner’s consent. Put the person in fear of injury or hurt or death by this inducement the owner by himself deliver the property. When in either theft or robbery there is instant fear of death or hurt or injury to the person. When five or more person commits or attempts to commit the robbery.
Without any weapon. With or without the help of the weapon. With the help of the weapon. With the help of the weapons.
Takes way without consent or knowledge. Property can be delivered instantly or after someday. It should be delivered instantly. Instantly.


Written by Ankush Aggarwal

Ankush Aggarwal is a final year Law Student of BA.LLB Integrated Course, He is a very career-oriented person and very enthusiastic about his future and Law field. He has a keen interest in Intellectual Property Rights, Criminal Law, Human Rights, and Property Law. He likes to write articles and give speeches or Lectures on Law topics and also has an interest in listening to podcasts.


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